Saturday, June 10, 2017

Publish with Haiti: Then and Now (HTN)

Note to New Writers & Contributors of Haiti: Then and Now (HTN)

"Haiti: Then and Now" accepts both solicited and unsolicited constructive and original pieces and essays from writers and thinkers, not exceeding 1500 words. We publish both fiction and non-fiction. When you submit an essay to us, it will be peer-reviewed by two individuals in our "official list of Contributors." We publish in Kreyol, French, English, and Spanish.

Do send us your best work! All new contributions to HTN should be sent to

In the Title line, write "Submission."

Thank you,
Celucien L. Joseph, Ph.D.
Editor of "Haiti:Then and Now"
Professor of English
Indian River State College
Fort Pierce, Florida

Announcing "Haitian Thinkers in the Public Space: An Interview Series"

"Haitian Thinkers in the Public Space: An Interview Series"

Hello, Friends of Haiti and Readers of "Haiti: Then and Now (HTN)"

Haiti: Then and Now is pleased to announce a new interview series called "Haitian Thinkers in the Public Space." The goal of this series of conversation is to get to know Haitian and Haitian-descent thinkers, scholars, and professionals who have contributed to the discipline of Haitian studies and improved substantially to our understanding of the Haitian life and human condition in Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora. Equally, we are interested to know about their profession, scholarship, their perspective on Haiti, Haitian culture, Haitian politics, the current state of Haitian Studies, and life in the Haitian Diapora, etc. 

The interview will consist of six questions and no more than eight questions.

If you would like us (HTN) to interview a particular Haitian thinker, please leave the name of the person in the comment box or send us an email at

To learn more about "Haiti: Then and Now," please click on the link below…

 Dr. Bertin M. Louis, Jr., an Haitian-American anthropologist and Professor who teaches at the University of Tennessee, was the first one to be interviewed for this series. You can read about him by clicking on the link below:

About Haiti: Then and Now
"Haiti: Then and Now" (HTN) is an online venue and platform composing of writers, cultural critics, intellectuals, artists, poets, historians, philosophers, etc. The goal of "Haiti: Then and Now" is twofold (1) to engage and reflect critically  on the human condition--past and present-- in Haiti and the Haitian experience in the Haitian Diaspora, by providing insightful  analysis and commentaries, and (2) to link the voices and ideas of Haitian thinkers in Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora."Haiti: Then and Now" promotes a politics of relationality, and an ethics of collaboration and reciprocity.

To learn more about "Haiti: Then and Now," please click on the link below…

Celucien L. Joseph, Ph.D.
Editor of "Haiti:Then and Now"
Assistant Professor of English
Indian River State College
Fort Pierce, Florida

Wednesday, June 7, 2017

The First Annual Symposium on Haitian History & Cultural Heritage: A Summary of the Event

The First Annual Symposium on Haitian History & Cultural Heritage:
A Summary of the Event

Theme: “Rethinking the Haitian Revolution and Haitian Intellectual History”

In the United States of America, the month of May is officially recognized as the Haitian Heritage Month.  In various parts of the Country, on this month, Haitians and people of Haitian descent work collaboratively to organize cultural and educational events to celebrate the rich history and culture of Haiti. On Saturday, May 27, 2017, from 10:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., The Mocombeian Foundation based in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, founded by Dr. Paul C. Mocombe, a Haitian American philosopher and theorist, organized the first annual symposium to rethink about the meaning of Haiti and its triumphant revolution, and to celebrate the achievements of the Haitian people and their ancestors in global history and universal civilization. The chosen theme for this year was “Rethinking the Haitian Revolution and Haitian Intellectual History.”  The paper presenters and cultural activities at the Symposium appropriated this subject matter.The oral presentations were delivered in Kreyol, English, and French; however, Kreyol was the dominant language of delivery.

The Symposium was held at the African-American Research Library and Cultural Center in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. It was divided in two segments: from 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.: Art Exhibitions and Live Performances; and 3:00 to 5:00” Panel Presentations. The panelists included Drs. Paul C. Mocombe, who served as moderator, Celucien L. Joseph, Judite Blanc, Sam L. Joseph; Lawyers Simonis Christa (from Haiti) and Pascal Robert; and Mr. Jerry Michell (from Haiti), a PhD candidate in Sociology at the Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis and at the Université d’Etat d’Haïti. Eleven artists and scholars from Haiti were initially responded to participate in the Symposium. Three artists-painters from “Kolektif Basquiat” were present to showcase their work. Regrettably, due to personal inconveniences and logistical reasons, only five made it to the event.

Dr. Judite Blanc, a Haitian-trained psychologist, was instrumental in bringing Haitian thinkers, painters, and artists such as “Kolektif Basquiat” from Haiti to the Symposium in America. Dr. Celucien L. Joseph, a Haitian-American intellectual historian and religious scholar, was also helpful in forging the bond between Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora.

The objective of this interdisciplinary symposium was threefold: (1) to reflect critically about Haitian culture and History, (2) to provide constructive responses and intelligent commentaries about the Haitian experience and life, and (3) to link the voices and ideas of Haitian thinkers and scholars both in Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora. The symposium has drawn attendees from across the United States of America, Haiti, Canada, and other countries. It was broadcast (livestream) on Facebook and other social media venues, both in Haiti and the United States.  The program included panel presentations, Haitian sculpture, art exhibition, and other cultural events that showcased the richness of Haitian culture and the significance of Haitian history in modernity.

The collaboration of Haitian thinkers and artists, from Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora, was a success and memorable event.  The Mocombeian Foundation and Hope Outreach Productions would like to thank everyone who attended the Symposium. We are grateful to the manager and staff of the African American Research Library and Museum for hosting the First Symposium on Haitian History and Cultural Heritage.

Below, we provide detailed information about the presenters and associated abstracts, as well as the audio-video recordings of their presentations (videos to be added later).

About the Presenters and Abstracts

Paul C. Mocombe, PhD; CEO & President of The Mocombian Foundation & Assistant Professor of Sociology & Philosophy at West Virginia State University

Paul C. Mocombe, PhD; Former Visiting Professor of Philosophy and Sociology at Bethune Cookman University and Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Sociology at West Virginia State University and the President/CEO of The Mocombeian Foundation, Inc.  A social theorist interested in the application of social theory to contemporary issues such as race, class, and capitalism (globalization), he is the author of, Jesus and the Streets; Race and Class Distinctions Within Black Communities; Language, Literacy, and Pedagogy in Postindustrial Societies; A labor Approach to the Development of the Self or Modern Personality: The Case of Public Education, Education in Globalization; Mocombe’s Reading Room Series; and The Mocombeian Strategy: The Reason for, and Answer to Black Failure in Capitalist Education.

E-mail: Email Address: or

Judite Blanc, PhD;  Professor at State University of Haiti (UEH) and Institut des Sciences, des
Technologies et des Etudes Avancees d’Haiti (ISTEAH)

“Is Haitian Epistemology an African Epistemology?”

This presentation seeks to address two theoretical concepts: Haitian Epistemology and African Epistemology in the reduced (cultural) milieu of Haiti and the Haitian experience. It also inquires about the possibility to define each concept (Haitian Epistemology or African Epistemology) in a specific territorial or national context—within the global history and trajectories of the African Diaspora.

What would the adjective “Haitian” or “African” stand for or mean in the context of both expressions? Does it pertain to Haiti’s national language or Haiti’s geographical landscape or territory?” Is it the way the Haitian people (or the Haitian scholar) think in terms of method or the manner in which they describe the nature of things. In order to discover the nature of Haitian Epistemology, and the relationship between Haitian Epistemology and African Epistemology, the first step in the process would it be to dig into Haiti’s history, which began before slavery and colonial period? This exploration of epistemology, from a cultural perspective, is an urgent matter in the fight for cognitive justice in the African diaspora.

Keyword: Cognitive Justice, Empiricism, Epistemology, Haiti, Holistic Approach, Science Practice.

Judite Blanc obtained her Ph.D. in Psychology at the University of Paris 13 in France. Her research papers about the overall psychopathological consequences of the Haiti 2010 earthquake, specifically on the psychological development of young children exposed to the catastrophe were published in high-impact factor journals. Dr Blanc is currently serving as Mental Health Therapist in South Florida. Furthermore, she continues to serve as University professor at the State University of Haiti and other prestigious private universities in Port-au-Prince. Inspired by the epigenetic studies on prenatal exposure and traumatic transmission from mother to offspring, the main goal of her research is to advance knowledge with respect to the links between traumatic exposure in ancestors, such as slavery and psychosocial development of future generation. Her research program includes Haitian populations located in Haiti and in the United States, also the overall African Diaspora.

Judite BLANC a décroché  son diplôme de doctorat en Psychologie à l’Université de Paris 13. Ses  travaux publiés dans des revues internationales ciblent les conséquences psychopathologiques de l’évènement sismique du 12 janvier 2010 en Haïti, notamment le développement psychologique ultérieur des jeunes enfants exposes in utero à la catastrophe. Actuellement, Dre Blanc  intervient comme thérapeute dans le champ de la santé mentale dans le Sud de la Floride. Parallèlement, elle continue à enseigner la Psychologie et la Psychopathologie à l’Université d’Etat d’Haïti et  dans d’autres établissements universitaires privés à Port-au-Prince. Dans la lignée des études epigénétiques sur l’exposition prénatale et la transmission des traumatismes de la mère à l’enfant, l’objectif principal de son programme de recherche est de contribuer à faire avancer les connaissances sur les liens existants entre les (psycho) traumas vécus par des ancêtres, tels que l’esclavage et le développement psychosocial ultérieur de leurs descendants et descendantes. Son programme de recherche se donne pour populations cibles les haïtiens et  haïtiennes ainsi que toutes les communautés afrodescendantes des quatre coins du monde.

Pascal Robert, Lawyer; Co-Founder of The Haitian Bloggers' Caucus 

            “The Importance of Haiti for African Americans”

In his presentation, Mr. Robert highlights  the significance of Haiti's national history and the Haitian Revolution in the Black experience in America and African American struggle for freedom, democracy, and equality. He argues that Haiti provided inspiration for African American revolutionaries and freedom fighters and that the African American population is indebted to Haiti in their fight against white racism and violence in the United States.

Pascal Robert (pronounced Ro-Bear like Stephan Colbert) is:

A Blogger who loves all things politics. SHEER political independent; unafraid to slay the most sacred cows of ideological orthodoxy from the Left, or the Right and one who enjoys global affairs and aspects of pop culture. In all ways he is a child of the Haitian Revolution.

Pascal Robert has been known for years to the online world as
THOUGHT MERCHANT. Since 2007 he has been recognized for his hard hitting, blunt unvarnished style of bringing attention to current events and global affairs, especially those affecting communities of color.

One of his earliest Blog posts
"The Revenge of the "Good" Blacks" was published in The Black Commentator, one of the most sophisticated online sources for commentary on issues affecting the African American community at that time.

In 2008 THOUGHT MERCHANT was recognized for its coverage of the Democratic Primary by authors of the famous Black Political Blog,
"Jack and Jill Politics," for being the first to introduce Hillary Clinton's plans to use the Super Delegate system to disadvantage Barack Obama in the Democratic Primary to the Blogosphere.

After the election of President Obama, Pascal Robert continued to blog about the issues of political and social importance facing communities of color and greater society until the January 12, 2010 earthquake hit his beloved ancestral homeland of Haiti. Pascal was one of the first to break the story on the internet via
Facebook and Twitter.

The devastation from the earthquake so affected Pascal, he created a new Blog to exist in tandem with THOUGHT MERCHANT to concentrate on issues exclusively facing Haiti and the Haitian people subsequent to the earthquake: Dessalines' Children Blog:

Pascal Robert then transformed all his online activities to not just addressing politics and social issues as he did before, but becoming a full fledged online advocate and activist for Haiti.

Pascal Robert has appeared on online radio discussing Haitian history and the issues facing the Haitian people such as his
appearance on Urban Media Network's online radio program hosted by well-known online personality L. Martin Pratt.

Pascal's Blog piece,
"Can Haiti Get Beyond Politics as Usual?" was a featured blog on the website Haiti Rewired: An online Social Network for Haiti Activists.

Pascal Robert is also the co-founder and list administrator for the Haitian Bloggers' Caucus: A consortium of Bloggers from Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora. Requests to join the Haitian Bloggers' Caucus List Server can be sent here:

Pascal's work, and the work of all members of the Haitian Bloggers' Caucus, can be viewed on this new Blog aggregator. It includes Blogs by people of Haitian descent living in Haiti and abroad. The aggregator was put together in an effort to amplify the often neglected perspectives of Haitians regarding their country:

Pascal's parents fled Haiti in the mid 1960's from the oppression of then President Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier. He was born and raised in New York City. He received his Bachelors of Arts in Social Science from Hofstra University and a Juris Doctor from Boston University School of Law.

You can follow Pascal on twitter:

Sam L. Joseph, PhD; Financial Advisor at Keiser University 

“Factors Affecting The Retention of First-Year Immigrant College Students: A Case Study of Haitian Students”

 "The purpose of this study is to explore the risk factors for first-year College students related to dropping out.  The focus on Haitian students is important for this study for many reasons.  Haitians are the largest immigrant group in Broward County and the second largest immigrant group in Florida after Cubans. If these students continue to drop out of college, they will continue to face low academic achievement, limited mobility, and serious economic problems. 

The main topic guiding this study was the learning and personal barriers that Haitian immigrant students encounter during their first-year of college, specifically pertaining to the reasons that caused Haitian students to drop out of college.  The study seeks to identify, describe, and explore the risk factors for first-year Haitian immigrant students for the continuation of their studies at a private institution in Broward County.  Furthermore, this study should help identify the learning, personal, and institutional barriers that these students experienced, leading to their dropping out of school. 

By examining students' perceptions and experiences, the study will seek to gain knowledge of not only the internal risk factors, but also the assumed importance of the external barriers that prohibited them from completing their education.  Focusing research on Haitian students will help further explore the unique characteristics so that the research may describe the intricacies of their first-year of their college experiences. The details of this finding may help educators and policymakers develop programs, strategies, and interventions for the prevention and recovery of this particular group of students who are at risk of dropping out and, in the long run, for other immigrant students who may face similar situations."

Samuel Joseph is a native of Haiti, Cap Haitien, and has lived in Fort Lauderdale South Florida, since 1994. Sam is a family man with a devotion to God, his beautiful wife and three children.   He received his Master’s in Education and Business Administration at Kaplan University in Chicago, Illinois. His PhD in Instructional Leadership is from Keiser University. His dissertation focuses on the Factors Affecting the Retention of First-Year Immigrant College Students: A Case Study of Haitian Students. Apart from the above, Sam has kept a keen interest in politics, educational related issues and enjoys reading, watching sports, and most importantly spending time with his loved ones.

Jerry Michel, Doctorant en sociologie en cotutelle à l’Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis
et à l’Université d’Etat d’Haïti; Enseignant-Chercheur  à l’université d’État d’Haïti et Directeur Technique du Bureau National d’Ethnologie

« Tours et détours des régimes d’historicité en Haïti : La place de la mémoire de l’esclavage en question »

« Ce travail répond à la volonté de favoriser une démarche sociologique sur la problématique du souvenir de la mémoire de l’esclavage dans la société postcoloniale haïtienne. En ce sens, il souhaite s’inscrire dans les études des traces du souvenir de l’esclavage et des récits mémoriels mis en scène dans les lieux signifiants du passé. Notre projet vise à analyser les formes de transmission orales et écrites du passé colonial en tant que rapport que la société haïtienne postcoloniale entretient avec le temps et l’espace. Priorisant la recherche ethnographique et visuelle, notre projet répond à un souci de mettre l’accent sur l’expérience sociale, l’historicité des lieux et la capacité de mise en scène de la mémoire collective par les acteurs ordinaires et institutionnels. Ce choix nous permet ainsi de nous inscrire résolument dans une approche du présentisme (Hartog, 2003) appréhendant la mémoire collective comme une expérience temporelle qui engrène passé, présent et futur. En effet, la mémoire collective, du point de vue de l’individu et de la société, explore le passé, prépare l’avenir et identifie le présent.

Dans cette perspective, le regard croisé entre sociologie et histoire s’avère utile pour appréhender les usages et enjeux des dynamiques mémorielles et des logiques patrimoniales mises en scène dans les habitations coloniales en Haïti. Il se révèle nécessaire pour une compréhension des régimes d’historicité (Hartog, 2003) en Haïti sachant, comme le soulignait François Hartog, que les habitations coloniales en Haïti, devenues ultérieurement des potentiels lieux de mémoire (Nora, 1997) sont des constructions mouvantes. Plus largement cette perspective socio-historique (Noiriel, 2006) permet de mieux saisir les héritages de l’esclavage dans l’Haïti postcolonial que ce soit en termes d’inégalités vécues, de luttes de places, de revendications politiques, de conflits de mémoires et de constructions identitaires. Aussi, loin de considérer l’esclavage comme un phénomène relégué dans un passé lointain, les réflexions de notre travail visent à analyser les enjeux des expressions mémorielles des schèmes de la colonialité en Haïti. D’ailleurs, les discours relatifs à l’histoire de l’esclave et à ses mémoires sont souvent instrumentalisés pour présenter un imaginaire héroïque ou pour conserver une posture victimaire de descendants d’esclaves. Dans l’enseignement de l’histoire les mémoires de l’esclavage sont identifiées comme étant des facteurs explicatifs de l’amnésie du passé colonial dans la société haïtienne postcoloniale. »

Mots clés : Habitations coloniales, esclavage, mémoire, historicité, Haïti

Jerry Michel est enseignant-chercheur à l’université d’État d’Haïti et Directeur Technique du Bureau National d’Ethnologie. Doctorant en sociologie en cotutelle à l’Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis et à l’Université d’Etat d’Haïti, il est également chercheur au Centre de Recherche sur l’Habitat du Laboratoire Architecture Ville Urbanisme Environnement UMR 7218 CNRS et au Laboratoire LADIREP de l’Université d’Etat d’Haïti. La thèse de doctorat qu’il réalise sous la direction de Claire Lévy-Vroelant (Professeure de sociologie à l’Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis, CRH-LAVUE UMR 7218) et de Laënnec Hurbon (Professeur de sociologie à l’Université d’État d’Haïti et l’Université Quisqueya et directeur de recherche au CNRS) porte sur la patrimonialisation et la construction de la mémoire dans les habitations coloniales haïtiennes. Il détient une licence en sociologie (Université d’État d’Haïti, 2009, mention très bien) et un master recherche en sociologie (Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis, mention très bien, 2012).

Simonis Christa, Lawyer

« Droit et héritage culturel haïtien : entre protection, valorisation ou acculturation »

In her presentation, Simonis Christa underscores the relationship between the ethics of rights and Haitian cultural heritage. Fundamentally, she argues that it is imperative for the Haitian government to create institutions that will valorize and preserve Haitian culture and the traditions of the Haitian people. As people, cultures have legal rights and ought to be preserved. The legal aspect of culture is that it is connected to a people's sense of identity and values. 

 Simonis Christa originaire du Cap-Haitien, jeune et ancienne étudiante des Sciences Juridiques de la faculté de droit de Port-au-Prince et ancienne étudiante de la faculté d’ethnologie en Psychologie de l’Université d’Etat d’Haïti. Elle a également eue un parcours au petit conservatoire de Daniel Marcelin et est à présent vice-coordonnatrice à sitwomafrika et enseigne chez les filles de l’institution du sacré cœur dans le domaine des arts et de la psychologie. Elle a de nombreuses perspectives pour sa carrière, elle est optimiste et cherche des opportunités pour continuer avec ses études et notamment ses recherches.

Celucien L. Joseph, PhD; Professor of English at Indian River State College 

“Rethinking the Intellectual Foundation of the Haitian Revolution: A Letter for Freedom and Independence (July 1792)”

“In the field of Haitian Revolutionary Studies, the idea of general liberty and universal emancipation has been contested by a minority but powerful voices and historians. Particularly, some Haitianist historians have argued that the enslaved African population in the French colony of Saint-Domingue had not been preoccupied with an early notion of general emancipation and neither had the natural drive to rupture the schackles of slavery and put an end to the French colonial regime.

Many historians have unconvincinly contested that Libertè générale was a latter manifestation and progressive thought, as thr slaves themselves moved switfly toward freedom, independence, and decolonization. In this presentation, we argue that the resolution toward general liberty and independence were one singular commitment for the enslaved African population. These twin and inseparable ideas did not develop in the latter phase of the Haitian Revolution. We contend that general emancipation as total independence (and decolonization) was already an early goal that came to fruition in the unfolding events leading to a double event: The triumph of the Haitian Revolution and the founding of the Republic of Haiti.  However, it was conditioned by a range of contingent circumstances and watershed events in which Saint-Dominguan Slaves were obliged to fight for freedom, which translated into a matter of practical reality.

Toward this goal, we analyze the rhetorical force, devices, and demands of the historic letter of July 1792, penned by three early and prominent leaders of the Revolution: Jean-François Papillon, Georges Biassou, and Charles Belair/Toussaint Louverture.”

Dr. Celucien L. Joseph is a Haitian American Professor, writer, and religious scholar. Dr. Joseph is actively involved in the Haitian community in South Florida, especially in the Treasure Coast area. He is a member of the Haitian Advisory Council of the Treasure Coast, and an advisor to the Haitian Cultural Club at Indian River State College (IRSC). He is also the Curator of “Haiti: Then and Now.” Briefly, “Haiti: Then and Now" (HTN) is an online venue and platform composing of writers, cultural critics, intellectuals, artists, poets, historians, philosophers, etc. Dr. Joseph is a frequent guest speaker of “Legacy 1804,” an online radio show, hosted by Haitian American intellectual and cultural critic Alice Backer, that provides intelligent cultural, intellectual, and political commentaries on Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora.

Dr. Joseph is a prolific writer and has authored seven books including From Toussaint to Price-Mars: Rhetoric, Race, and Religion in Haitian Thought (2013), Haitian Modernity and Liberative Interruptions: Discourse on Race, Religion, Freedom (University Press of America, 2013), God Loves Haiti: A Short Overview of Hope for Today Outreach (Hope Outreach Productions, 2015), Radical Humanism and Generous Tolerance: Soyinka on Religion and Human Solidarity (Hamilton Books, 2016), Vodou in Haitian Memory: The Idea and Representation of Vodou in Haitian Imagination (Lexington Books, 2016), and Vodou in the Haitian Experience: A Black Atlantic Perspective (Lexington Books, 2016),  Thinking in Public: Faith, Secular Humanism, and Development in Jacques Roumain (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2017). He is currently working on a volume on Jean-Bertrand Aristide, former President of Haiti and Catholic-Priest Liberation Theology entitled Aristide: A Theological and Political Introduction to His Life and Thought (forthcoming in 2018, Fortress Press).

Dr. Joseph also co-edited a two volume work on Haitian Vodou entitled Vodou in Haitian Memory: The Idea and Representation of Vodou in Haitian Imagination (Lexington Books, 2016), and Vodou in the Haitian Experience: A Black Atlantic Perspective (Lexington Books, 2016). He is currently the editor of a new volume on Jean Price-Mars, Between Two Worlds: Price-Mars, Haiti, and Africa, to be published in 2018 by Lexington Books, and another volume on the award winning short fiction Haitian American writer Edwidge Danticat (Approaches to Teaching the Work of Edwidge Danticat).

Dr. Joseph is currently in the editorial board and Chair of The Journal of Pan African Studies Regional Advisory Board; he also the curator of “Haiti: Then and Now.”  He edited JPAS special issue on Wole Soyinka entitled “Rethinking Wole Soyinka: 80 Years of Protracted Engagement” (2015). He reviews manuscripts for various journals and has presented papers at conferences, both nationally and internationally.

Dr. Joseph is the Founder and President of Hope for Today Outreach (HTO), a Christian faith-based and non-profit organization located in Port St. Lucie, Florida, but provides educational and social services in Haiti. Hope for Today Outreach is unreservedly committed to the welfare and improvement of Haitian communities both in Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora. Through HTO, Dr. Joseph and his team work together and diligently to improve the human condition in Haiti and provide an alternative and promising future to Haitian youth and families. HTO seeks to empower Haitian families, the Haitian poor, underprivileged individuals, and the needy by meeting their material and spiritual needs.

* Please click on the link below to view photos of the event

First Annual Symposium on Haitian Heritage: Best Pictures for Last (Part II)!