Showing posts with label Haitian Vodou. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Haitian Vodou. Show all posts

Friday, April 15, 2016

Vodou, I remember: Two New Books on Haitian Vodou


We would like to announce the publication of two important books on Haitian Vodou.  Vodou in the Haitian Experience: A Black Atlantic Perspective , and Vodou in Haitian Memory: The Idea and Representation of Vodou in Haitian Imagination, which are edited by Drs. Celucien L. Joseph and Nixon Cleophat, are published by Lexington Books (2016).  Both texts can be ordered on the publisher's website, amazon.com, or any online bookstore.


Description

One glaring lacuna in studies of Haitian Vodou is the scarcity of works exploring the connection between the religion and its main roots, traditional Yoruba religion. Discussions of Vodou very often seem to present the religion in vacuo, as a sui generis phenomenon that arose in Saint-Domingue and evolved in Haiti, with no antecedents. What is sorely needed then is more comparative studies of Haitian Vodou that would examine its connections to traditional Yoruba religion and thus illuminate certain aspects of its mythology, belief system, practices, and rituals. This book seeks to bridge these gaps.

Vodou in the Haitian Experience studies comparatively the connections and relationships between Vodou and African traditional religions such as Yoruba religion and Egyptian religion. Such studies might enhance our understanding of the religion, and the connections between Africa and its Diaspora through shared religious patterns and practices. The general reader should be mindful of the transnational and transcultural perspectives of Vodou, as well as the cultural, socio-economic, and political context which gave birth to different visions and ideas of Vodou.

The chapters in this collection tell a story about the dynamics of the Vodou faith and the rich ways Vodou has molded the Haitian narrative and psyche. The contributors of this book examine this constructed narrative from a multicultural voice that engages critically the discipline of ethnomusicology, drama, performance, art, anthropology, ethnography, economics, literature, intellectual history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, religion, and theology. Vodou is also studied from multiple theoretical approaches including queer, feminist theory, critical race theory, Marxism, postcolonial criticism, postmodernism, and psychoanalysis.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Contemporary and Transnational Vodou, and the African Perspective
Celucien L. Joseph and Nixon Cleophat
Part I. Vodou, Anthropology, Art, Performance, and the Black Diaspora
  1. Roots / Routes / Rasin: Rural Vodou and the Sacred Tree as Metaphor for the Multiplicity of Styles in Folkloric Dance and Mizik Rasin
Ann E. Mazzocca
  1. Circling the Cosmogram: Vodou Aesthetics, Feminism, and Queer Art in the
Second-Generation Haitian Dyaspora
Kantara Souffrant
  1. Dancing Difference and Disruption: Vodou Liturgy and Little Haiti on the Hill in “Seven Guitars”
Barbara Lewis
  1. Decoding Dress: Vodou, Cloth and Colonial Resistance in Pre- and Postrevolutionary Haiti
Charlotte Hammond
Part II. Vodou and African Traditional Religions
  1. The African Origin of Haitian Vodou: From the Nile Valley to the Haitian Valleys
Patrick Delices
  1. New World/Old World Vodun , Creolité, and the Alter-Renaissance
Bronwyn Mills
  1. The vibratory art of Haiti: a Yoruba heritage
Patricia Marie-Emmanuelle Donatien
  1. Ethnographic Interpretations of Traditional African Religious Practices and Haitian Vodou Ceremonial Rites in Zora Neale Hurston’s (1938) Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Maya Deren’s (1983) Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti
Tammie Jenkins
  1. Oversouls and Egregores in Haitian Vodou
Patricia Scheu (Mambo Vye Zo Komande LaMenfo)
  1. Arabian Religion, Islam and Haitian Vodou:
The “Recent African Single-Origin Hypothesis” and the Comparison of World Religions
Benjamin Hebblethwaite and Michel Weber
vodoub

Description

Throughout Haitian history—from 17th century colonial Saint-Domingue to 21st century postcolonial Haiti—arguably, the Afro-Haitian religion of Vodou has been represented as an “unsettling faith” and a “cultural paradox,” as expressed in various forms and modes of Haitian thought and life including literature, history, law, politics, painting, music, and art. Competing voices and conflicting ideas of Vodou have emerged from each of these cultural symbols and intellectual expressions. The Vodouist discourse has not only pervaded every aspect of the Haitian life and experience, it has defined the Haitian cosmology and worldview. Further, the Vodou faith has had a momentous impact on the evolution of Haitian intellectual, aesthetic, and literary imagination; comparatively, Vodou has shaped Haitian social ethics, sexual and gender identity, and theological discourse such as in the intellectual works and poetic imagination of Jean Price-Mars, Dantes Bellegarde, Jacques Roumain, Jacques Stephen Alexis, etc. Similarly, Vodou has shaped the discourse on the intersections of memory, trauma, history, collective redemption, and Haitian diasporic identity in Haitian women’s writings such as in the fiction of Edwidge Danticat, Myriam Chancy, etc.
The chapters in this collection tell a story about the dynamics of the Vodou faith and the rich ways Vodou has molded the Haitian narrative and psyche. The contributors of this book examine this constructed narrative from a multicultural voice that engages critically the discipline of ethnomusicology, drama, performance, art, anthropology, ethnography, economics, literature, intellectual history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, religion, and theology. Vodou is also studied from multiple theoretical approaches including queer, feminist theory, critical race theory, Marxism, postcolonial criticism, postmodernism, and psychoanalysis.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Towards New Visions and New Approaches to the Vodou Religion
Celucien L. Joseph and Nixon CleophatPart I: Vodou, Modernity, Resistance, and Haitian Cultural Identity and Nationalism
Chapter One: James Theodore Holly, Fabre Geffrard, and the Construction of a “Civilized’ Haiti”
Brandon R. Byrd
Chapter Two: Oath To Our Ancestors: The Flag of Haiti is Rooted in Vodou
Patrick Delices
Part II. Vodou, Vodouphobia, and Haitian Male Intellectuals and Cultural Critics
Chapter Three: The Role of Vodou in the Religious Philosophy of Jean Price-Mars
Celucien L. Joseph
Chapter Four: Jacques Stephen Alexis, Haitian Vodou and Medicine: Between Cure and Care
Shallum Pierre
Part III. Vodou, Christian Theology, and Collective Redemption
Chapter Five: Haitian Vodou: The Ethics of Social Sin & the Praxis of Liberation
Nixon S. Cleophat
Chapter Six: Vodouphobia and Afrophobic Discourse in Haitian Thought: An Analysis of Dantès Bellegarde’s Religious Sensibility
Celucien L. Joseph
Chapter Seven: Haitian Vodou, a Politico-Realist Theology of Survival: Resistance in the Face of Colonial Violence and Social Suffering
Nixon S. Cleophat
Part IV. Vodou, Memory, Trauma, and Haitian Women Intellectuals and Cultural Critics
Chapter Eight: Vodou Symbolism and “Poto Mitan:” Women in Edwidge Danticat’s Work
Myriam Moïse
Chapter Nine: Writing from lòt bò dlo: Vodou Aesthetics and Poetics in Edwidge Danticat and Myriam Chancy
Anne Brüske and Wiebke Beushausen
Chapter Ten: The Economics of Vodou: Haitian Women, Entrepreneurship, and Empowerment
Crystal Andrea Felima

Friday, July 25, 2014

Reading list and online resources on Haitian Vodou compiled by Celucien L. Joseph

Reading list and online resources on Haitian Vodou
compiled by Celucien L. Joseph

This list is not exhaustive or comprehensive; it is a selected list on the subject with an attempt to introduce our readers  to the scholarship  on Haitian Vodou,  and the nature of Haitian Vodou religion and spirituality. The list is divided in three parts: a) Books, b) Online articles/essays, c) Online interviews and documentaries. As time permits, we will add more resources to the list.

A. Books
  • The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti Hardcover by Kate Ramsey (University of Chicago Press, 2011)   
  •   Haiti, History, and the Gods (University of California Press, 1998) by Colin Dayan 
  • Religions et lien social: L' église et  l'état moderne en Haiti (Cerf, 2004) by Laennec Hurbon
  • Voodoo: Search for the Spirit (Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1995) by Laennec Hurbon
  • Voodoo: Truth and Fantasy (Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1995)  by Laennec Hurbon
  • Dieu dans le Vodou haitien (Maisonneuve & Larose, 2002)  by Laennec Hurbon
  • Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti (Thames & Hudson, 2004) by Maya Deren
  •  The Faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholism in Haiti (The University of North Carolina Press, 1992) by Leslie G. Desmangles
  • Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn (University of California Press, 1991) by Karen McCarthy Brown
  •  Rara! Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and Its Diaspora (University of California Press, 2002) by  Elizabeth McAlister 
  • Vodou Nation: Haitian Art Music and Cultural Nationalism (The University of Chicago Press, 2006) by Michael Largey
  • Voodoo in Haiti (Schoken Books, 1972) by Alfred Metraux
  • Haiti: Le Vodou au Troisieme Millenaire (CIDIHCA, 2002) by Frantz-Antoine Leconte
  • Secrets of Voodoo (City Lights, 1969) by Milo Rigaud 
  • Crossing the Water and Keeping the Faith (Temple University Press, 2013) by Terry Rey and Alex Stepick 
  • Our Lady of Class Struggle: The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Haiti (Africa World Press, 1999) by Terry Rey
  • Migration and Vodou (University Press of Florida, 2005) by Karen E. Richman
  • Religion and Politics in Haiti (Institute for Cross-Cultural Research, 1966) by Harold Courlander and Remy Bastien 
  •  Ve-Ve Diagrammes Rituels du Voudou : Ritual Voodoo Diagrams : Blasones de los Vodu - Trilingual ed. French English...( French & European Publications; Trilingual French-English-Spanish edition, 1992) by Milo Rigaud 
  •  La Tradition Voudoo Et Le Voudoo Haïtien. Son Temple, Ses Mystères, Sa Magie, Etc. [With Illustrations.] (1953) by Milo Rigaud
  • Vodou in Haitian Life and Culture: Invisible Powers (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) by Patrick Bellegarde-Smith and Claudine Michel
  •  Haitian Vodou: Spirit, Myth, and Reality (Indian University Press, 2006) by Patrick Bellegarde-Smith and Claudine Michel
  •  Ainsi parla l'Oncle (1928) (Thus Spoke the Uncle) by Jean Price-Mars
  • Vaudou et Névrose (1913) by Justin Chrysostome Dorsainvil (J.C Dorsainvil)
  • Une Explication Philologique du Vaudou (1924) by Justin Chrysostome Dorsainvil (J.C Dorsainvil)
  • Vaudou et Magie (1937) by Justin Chrysostome Dorsainvil (J.C Dorsainvil)
  • Voodoo and Politics in Haiti (Palgrave Macmillan, 1989) by Michel Laguerre
  • Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole (Temple University Press, 2011) by Benjamin Hebblethwaite
  • Medecine and Morality in Haiti: The Contest for Healing Power (Cambridge University Press, 1996) by Paul Browdin
  • Vodou, je me souviens: essai (Éditions Dabar, 2009) by Jean Fils-Aimé
  •  Vaudou 101: une spiritualité moderne sans sorcellerie (Clermont Éditeur, 2013) by Jean Fils-Aimé 
  •   Et si les loas n'étaient pas des diables? Une enquête à la lumière des religions comparées: essai (Éditions Dabar, 2008) by Jean Fils-Aimé  
  • Les esprits vaudous sont-ils des diables?: Une enquête à la lumière de la science des religions comparées  (Editions universitaires europeennes EUE 2011) by Jean Fils-Aimé  
  •  Healing in the Homeland: Haitian Vodou Tradition (Lexington Books, 2013) by Margaret Mitchell Armand *
  •  Dancing Spirits: Rhythms and Rituals of Haitian Vodun, the Rada Rite (Praeger (Praeger, 1996) by Gerdes Fleurant
  •  Island Possessed (University of Chicago Press,1994) by Katherine Dunham
  • Nan Domi: An Initiate's Journey into Haitian Vodou by Mimerose Beaubrun (City Lights, 2013)
  •  Vaudou, sorciers, empoisonneurs : de Saint-Domingue à Haïti (Paris : Karthala, 1987) by Pierre Pluchon.
  •  African Vodun: Art, Psychology, and Power (University of Chicago Press , 1995) by Suzanne Preston Blier
  •  Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou  (University of California Los Angeles, 1995) 
B. Online articles/essays
 
  •  C. Online interviews and documentaries

 

Cardinal Chibly Langlois and Haitian Vodou: The Context

To help our readers understand the current conversation we're having on Vodou and the historical context of the series of articles (here, here, and there) that have been written on the subject, which we shared with you on "Haiti: Then and Now,"  we provide the link to the original article that stirred the dialogue. On  Sunday, July 13, 2014,  Rashmee Roshan Lall published an essay for The Guardian entitled "Voodoo won't save Haiti, says cardinal." In the short essay, the writer quotes Haiti's first appointed Roman Catholic Cardinal, Chibly Langlois, by the pope. The title of the article is followed by this statement: "Traditional faith 'offers no real solutions for the poor' and is a big social problem, says new prelate." Next, the author writes the following words:

"Haiti's first Roman Catholic cardinal has described voodoo as a "big social problem" for his desperately poor country, arguing that the religion offers "magic" but no real solutions to a population deprived of justice and a political voice.
Chibly Langlois, who was made a cardinal by Pope Francis in February, linked Haiti's belief system to its chronic political problems, which he says force poor Haitians – the overwhelming majority of a population of 10 million – to seek supernatural solutions.
"If a person is well educated and has the financial means, they will go to a doctor [instead of the voodoo priest] when they get sick. If that same person went to the court to get justice they would not go to the voodoo priest to get revenge. It's a big problem for the church. And for Haiti," he said."

Click on the link below to read the full article:

  "Voodoo won't save Haiti, says cardinal."


Short reading list and online resources on Haitian Vodou

This list is not exhaustive or comprehensive; it is a selected list on the subject with an attempt to introduce our readers  to the scholarship  on Haitian Vodou,  and the nature of Haitian Vodou religion and spirituality. The list is divided in three parts: a) Books, b) on-line articles/essays, c) on-line interviews and radio-conferences. As time permits, we will add more resources to the list.

A. Books
  • Nan Domi: An Initiate's Journey into Haitian Vodou by Mimerose Beaubrun (City Lights, 2013)
  • The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti Hardcover by Kate Ramsey (University of Chicago Press, 2011)   
  •  Haiti, History, and the Gods (University of California Press, 1998) by Colin Dayan 
  • Religions et lien social: L' église et  l'état moderne en Haiti (Cerf, 2004) by Laennec Hurbon
  • Voodoo: Search for the Spirit (Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1995) by Laennec Hurbon
  • Voodoo: Truth and Fantasy (Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1995)  by Laennec Hurbon
  • Dieu dans le Vodou haitien (Maisonneuve & Larose, 2002)  by Laennec Hurbon
  • Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti (Thames & Hudson, 2004) by Maya Deren
  •  The Faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholism in Haiti (The University of North Carolina Press, 1992) by Leslie G. Desmangles
  • Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn (University of California Press, 1991) by Karen McCarthy Brown
  • Vodou Nation: Haitian Art Music and Cultural Nationalism (The University of Chicago Press, 2006) by Michael Largey
  • Voodoo in Haiti (Schoken Books, 1972) by Alfred Metraux
  • Haiti: Le Vodou au Troisieme Millenaire (CIDIHCA, 2002) by Frantz-Antoine Leconte
  • Secrets of Voodoo (City Lights, 1969) by Milo Rigaud 
  • Crossing the Water and Keeping the Faith (Temple University Press, 2013) by Terry Rey and Alex Stepick 
  • Our Lady of Class Struggle: The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Haiti (Africa World Press, 1999) by Terry Rey
  • Migration and Vodou (University Press of Florida, 2005) by Karen E. Richman
  • Religion and Politics in Haiti (Institute for Cross-Cultural Research, 1966) by Harold Courlander and Remy Bastien 
  • Vodou in Haitian Life and Culture: Invisible Powers (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) by Patrick Bellegarde-Smith and Claudine Michel
  •  Haitian Vodou: Spirit, Myth, and Reality (Indian University Press, 2006) by Patrick Bellegarde-Smith and Claudine Michel
  •  Ainsi parla l'Oncle (1928) (Thus Spoke the Uncle) by Jean Price-Mars
  • Vaudou et Névrose (1913) by Justin Chrysostome Dorsainvil (J.C Dorsainvil)
  • Une Explication Philologique du Vaudou (1924) by Justin Chrysostome Dorsainvil (J.C Dorsainvil)
  • Vaudou et Magie (1937) by Justin Chrysostome Dorsainvil (J.C Dorsainvil)
  • Voodoo and Politics in Haiti (Palgrave Macmillan, 1989) by Michel Laguerre
  • Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole (Temple University Press, 2011) by Benjamin Hebblethwaite
  • Medecine and Morality in Haiti: The Contest for Healing Power (Cambridge University Press, 1996) by Paul Browdin
  • Vodou, je me souviens: essai (Éditions Dabar, 2009) by Jean Fils-Aimé
  •  Vaudou 101: une spiritualité moderne sans sorcellerie (Clermont Éditeur, 2013) by Jean Fils-Aimé 
  •   Et si les loas n'étaient pas des diables? Une enquête à la lumière des religions comparées: essai (Éditions Dabar, 2008) by Jean Fils-Aimé  
  • Les esprits vaudous sont-ils des diables?: Une enquête à la lumière de la science des religions comparées  (Editions universitaires europeennes EUE 2011) by Jean Fils-Aimé  
B. On-line articles/essays
C. Some on-line interviews and Radio-Conferences

 

Thursday, July 24, 2014

The Cardinal is a Big Problem by Yvrose S. Gilles and Dr. Jerry M. Gilles


Chibly Langlois' comments about Vodou would  probably have gone unnoticed had he not been recently selected by Pope Francis to become Haiti's first Roman Catholic Cardinal. In an article published in The Guardian on July 13, 2014, the cardinal is quoted as saying that Vodou offers only magic, but no real solutions to the politically voiceless people of Haiti.

The Catholic Church has a long history of criticizing magic while applauding miracles. Vodouists do not divide spiritual intervention along those same lines. Rather, they believe that events have either natural or supernatural causes. To address the natural cause of disease, they use herbal remedies, while to address supernatural causes, they use incantations. For Vodouist, magic and miracle are equally supernatural. What is miraculous to one person, is simply magical to another. Cardinal Langlois cannot criticize magic while upholding a mountain of miracles professed by the Catholic Church.

Church leaders recently invited the Haitian population to celebrate the 125th anniversary of an alleged miraculous intervention of the Virgin Mary in stopping a smallpox epidemic estimated to have killed some 100,000 people. Church leaders attributed the end of the epidemic to the efficacy of prayers to Mary. They seemed not to understand that the epidemic stopped because many received a traditional inoculation, while others developed their own natural immunity, having acquired a less malignant form of the infection. In other words, the Virgin Mary's intervention was a non-event that could only be regarded as part of the superstitions that the cardinal claims to be combating.

Unbeknownst to the cardinal, Vodouist have ventured beyond superstitions to make significant contributions to modern medicine. One of the earliest publications to report on inoculation (vaccination) came from the island of Haiti. There, Vodouist were addressing the natural cause of disease by introducing into the skins of healthy people the secretions from those sick from smallpox to prevent the infection from spreading (Gazette de Medicine Pour Les Colonies- 1778). This preventive measure was called achte vèrèt. Physicians present on the island, like Joubert de la Motte, helped to popularize the technique and that contributed to the development of modern vaccination (Weaver, 2006). Since concrete medical contributions like this are unknown to the Cardinal, he says that Vodou offers no real solutions as if his church's claims to miracles were more tangible solutions to disease treatment.

As shown by the neurologist, Bruce M. Hood, the human mind is superstitious in its thinking. For this reason, no religion is free of superstition. If Cardinal Langlois wants to purge religion of superstition, he ought to start with his own. He should ask all Catholics to remove crosses from their homes, cars, and necklaces as talismans for protection. The fact is the world is a better place when people can keep their religious articles so long as they do not violate the rights of others to practice their own religions and superstitions. If the Cardinal wants to eradicate superstitions, he can study whether Catholics can distinguish between tap water and holy water. Such an experiment might be useless to his congregation, but it could help tame his arrogance.

The cardinal's disparaging remarks about those who seek medical care from Vodou traditional healers is out of touch with reality. He is apparently unaware of the World Health Organization's publication showing that the cost of modern health care is prohibitive for 80% of the world's population (Kroll and Associates, Archives of Internal Medicine, 2007). Like Haitians, most people on the planet get their medical care from traditional religious healers who have been the cornerstone of herbal medical knowledge. According to the World Health Organization, traditional healers treat three times more daily ailments than modern medicine. To make even better use of these traditional treatments, in 1992, the US National Institute of Health established the Office of Alternative Medicine.

Contrary to what the cardinal assumes, it is not the poor alone who seek the council of pastors, priests, hougans, and manbos when modern medicine is either unavailable or ineffective. Particularly when faced with incurable illness, people all over the world seek comfort from their religious leaders. Comfort-care is itself an important element of modern medicine and is best offered in a culturally meaningful manner. Hougans and manbos offer that. The cardinal needs to step aside and let the people be comforted. He should refrain from giving the impression that modern medicine is a Christian heritage because it is not. It is a world heritage. In fact, scientists have often had to combat Christian resistance to apply scientific theories to therapeutic ends.

The cardinal may be familiar with Catholic catechism, but he is an untrustworthy source for explaining Vodou rituals. He claimed that ceremonies take place at night so that people can practice in hiding. The truth is that the timing of Vodou ceremonies reflects the Haitian belief that the world of spirits is the opposite of ours. Whereas we are mortal and visible, spirits are immortal and invisible. Whereas we are most active during the day, spirits are most active at night making nighttime the best time for religious service. Moreover, it escaped the cardinal that Haiti is in the tropics and Vodou services involve live music and dance, something best done in the cool of night.

Cardinal's Langlois' attempt to scapegoat Vodou as a “big social problem” disregards historical events that placed Haiti at a competitive disadvantage in the international struggle for control of world resources. He bypasses the 300 years when the vast majority of people on the island were forced to produce wealth for Spain, and then France, while creating poverty for themselves. The territory's customs and laws prevented enslaved people from inheriting anything from their parents. This ensured that nearly all people of African descent, on the island, would be born into poverty. France, the last colonial power to rule the area, ruled for nearly 100 years and built not a single university.


Despite this damaging history of racism in the Americas, it is shocking that the cardinal points to Vodou as the big problem. It is past racism that created wealth disparities along ethnic lines. Throughout the Americas, Native people and people of African descent are generally poorer than those of European ancestry. With the landing of Christopher Columbus' crew, modern racial discrimination first took place in Haiti and it is there that it left its most palpable scar. As the first Haitian Catholic Cardinal, surely Langlois must find it problematic that it took more than 500 years for his Church to promote a member of African-Haitian descent to the status of cardinal.

Cardinal Langlois presented his involvement in Haitian politics as though it were something out of the ordinary. Catholic Church leaders have a 500 year history of political involvement everywhere on the island. This longstanding history enabled the Church to enjoy preferential treatment, securing salaries for its priests from the Haitian state's coffers. The cardinal's immersion in politics is not the blazing of a new path. It is a continuation of the status quo. Blaming the victim also helps to preserve the status quo. It does not risk the wrath of the Vatican, of powerful foreign governments, nor of powerful Haitian leaders who have all played a part in impoverishing the people.

Cardinal Langlois declared that Haitians cannot be Catholics while having African religious beliefs. But it doesn't seem to bother him that his own Catholicism is a mixture of such religions as Mithra and Judaism. The merger of traditional European beliefs with Middle Eastern beliefs is apparently sacred in his mind and need not be pulled apart. But somehow the fusion of Christianity with African beliefs is utterly disturbing to him.
The cardinal's misguided statements show that he is out of touch with reality. Rather than blame Vodou, Cardinal Langlois should apologize for the harmful policies the Church sanctioned in the past. Just as Haitians cite their Ancestral Lwas to justify their present actions, Cardinal Langlois can reference Pope John Paul II who apologized for many ills the Church committed worldwide. Inspired by the pope, the cardinal can focus his own apology on the Church's detrimental actions in Haiti, and pave the way for more religious tolerance in the future.

 
Published on July 18, 2014, on Nelson Mandela's birthday
www.bookmanlit.com
Jerry M. Gilles
Yvrose S. Gilles
SOURCE: http://www.bookmanlit.com/cardinal.html